Sunday, April 6, 2008

We Need Your Info!!

That's right! We need to hear from you!
Have you read something in the paper or on the internet that concerns survivalism, preparedness, etc? Have you watched a good doco or news piece on anything prep related????
Have you read a good survival genre book and want to right a review for it????
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For example: "Alas Babylon Review by JoeBlogger".

So if you are interested in this then please email me with your ideas!!

Also if you have any ideas/comments about the blog then send them to me!!
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Cheers for now and keep prepping!


Fallout Fundamentals

Fallout Fundamentals

Fallout consists of dust particles that have been coated with radioactive
by-products from atomic explosions. This occurs when the nuclear or atomic
blast is a ground rather than air-burst (air-burst meaning that the fireball
is far enough from the earth's surface that there is no ground material
uptake into the high temperature portion of the mushroom cloud). In an air-
burst the bomb products condensate into such very small particles that they are
aloft for such a long time that they are mostly non-radioactive by the time
they come down, typically months or years. The fission process gives off
hundreds of different radioactive elements and isotopes. Also, a certian
portion of the fission mass does not fission. The fussion portion of nuclear
bombs is clean and gives off only helium, the atomic bomb trigger (fission)
which starts the nuclear bomb (fussion) is the portion of the bomb that leaves
radioactive by-products.
These by-products can be classified by their characteristics. One
characteristic is half-life. The half-life is the length of time it takes for
an element to give off one-half of its total radioactivity. This would also be
the length of time required for a given amount to change to one-half the
radioactive level, in other words if something was giving off radiation that
would yield 3 Rads/hours, after one half-life it would give off 1.5 Rads/hour.
An unstable isotope only emits radioactivity when one atom decays to
another isotope or element (which may or not be stable, stable being non-
radioactive). Therefore the portions of the element that are not in the
process of decaying are not giving off any radioactivity. If you have
"X" number of atoms of a radioactive element, "X/2" of those atoms will give
off their radioactivity in the half-life period and become a different element
or isotope. If an element has a half-life of 1 day, a given amount of it will
give off 1/2 of its total radiation during the 1st day, 1/4 during the second
day, 1/8 the 3rd day, 1/16th the 4th, 1/32 the 5th, 1/64 the 6th, 1/128th the
7th, et cetra. If you have a short half-life like Iodine 131 of 8, days most
of the radioactivity (99+%) will be emitted in two months. In a long half-
life element like plutonium 239 with a 24,400 year half-life, 1,000,000 atoms
would in 24,400 years give of 1/2 of their radioactivity leaving 500,000 atoms
of plutonium 239 at the end of those 24,400 years. 500,000 decays over 24,400
years equals approx. 21 decays per one year.
Another characteristic is the type of radiation given off, Alpha, Beta, or
Gamma radiation. Neutron radiation is only given off by the actual blast
itself and is not given off by the fallout itself. Only neutron radiation
can MAKE something that is not radioactive become radioactive. This is why
fallout can not cause something (like food inside a can) to become radioactive.
Alpha, beta, and gamma radiation can NOT make anything become radioactive.
Alpha radiation (helium nucleus, 2 protrons and 2 neutrons), like from
plutonium, can be shielded with one layer of Cellophane or newspaper or several
inches of air. Beta radiation (an electron) can be shielded by a layer of
drywall, or several feet of air. Gamma radiation is electromagnetic radiation.
Neutron radiation is a neutron and is about twice as hard to stop as Gamma.
Gamma and neutron are harder to stop, you need several feet of dirt or
concrete to absorb them. See below for specifics for stopping Gamma radiation.
One factor that most people don't realize about fallout is how fast it
decays. Fallout follows the t-1.2 law which states that for every sevenfold
increase in time after detonation there is a tenfold drop in radiation output.
Example, a reading of X level of radioactivity at Y hours after detonation
would indicate a level of radioactivity of .1X at 7Y hours after detonation.
This is accurate for 2,500 hours (14 weeks) following the explosion,
thereafter the doserate is lower than t-1.2 would predict. Example, if a
dose rate of 100 REM/hr was found at 1 hour after detonation(this assumes all
significant fallout from the bomb has fallen, therefore starting with the
seven hour point is probably more realistic) would be 10 REM/hr at 7 hours,
1 REM/hr at 49 hours(2 days), .1 REM/hr at 343 hours(2 weeks), .01 REM/hr at
2401 hours (14 weeks). A "survival safe" dose of radiation (this being defined
as no short term effects or disability) is 3 to 12 Rads/day. This dose rate of
3-12 Rads/day can only be taken to an accumulated dose of 150-200 rads if done
day after day. This would occur (assume 6 Rads/day) in this example at 150
hours for 24 hour exposure, or at 49 hours for a 6 hours per day outside of
shelter. Note though that since the level of activity is decreasing the time
spent outside every day would increase. If you increase the radiation by a
factor of 10 for another example would be where you would have 1,000 Rem/hr at
1 hr, 100 Rem/hr at 7 hrs., 1 Rem/hr at 343 hrs., .1 Rem/hr at 2401 hrs. The 24
hour exposure would be at 1,000 hours(41 days) and 6 hour work day outside of
shelter at 300 hours(12 days).
For various levels of contamination a "no short term effects" dose of 6 Rads
per day would be something like this: (for 80 col. printout)(measurements at
boundries of the oval shaped pattern)

Hours from Dose rate Hours of "safe" work outside per day, medical effect
EXAMPLE A An area 10 miles wide by 30 miles downwind directly downwind
from of a missle field that gets dozens of hits
1 hr. 10,000 R/hr None, 100% dead at 6 minutes of exposure
7 hrs. 1,000 R/hr None, 100% dead at 1 hour of exposure
2 days 100 R/hr None, 50% dead within 3-4 hour continuous exposure
2 weeks 10 R/hr 36 minutes. 50% dead for 2 day continuous exposure.
14 wks(3 mo) 1 R/hr 6 hours/day. 50% dead for 1 month continuous exposure
5% dead for 15 day continuous exposure, no medical care
and no deaths for 1 week continuous exposure.
EXAMPLE B An area 10 miles wide by 30 miles downwind of a single 1 MT
ground burst
1 hr 1,000 R/hr None, 100% dead at 1 hour of exposure
7 hrs. 100 R/hr None, 50% dead within 7-8 hour of continuous exposure
2 days 10 R/hr 36 minutes. 50% dead for 5 days of continuous exposure.
2 week 1 R/hr 6 hours/day. 50% dead for 1 month continuous exposure.
14 weeks 0.1 R/hr All day. 0% deaths from radiation hereafter.
EXAMPLE C An area 12 miles wide by 95 miles downwind for a single 1 MT
ground burst
1 hr radiation has not arrived yet.
7 hrs. 50 R/hr 12 minutes, 50% dead for 18 hour continuous exposure
2 days 5 R/hr. 1 hour, 5% dead for 2 week continuous exposure
2 weeks 0.5 R/hr 12 hours/day.
14 weeks 0.05 R/hr Unlimited.
The above three examples indicate conditions and exposures that would only
be acceptable in wartime. In these examples the wind is continuous in
direction and velocity. A real wind would not make such nice neat ovals. It
should be noted that even in real wind conditions, marching perpendicular to
the depositing wind will remove you from a individual fallout zone.

Here is an example of the levels of contamination from a single 1 MT ground
burst with a 15 MPH wind
Area downwind Arrival Accumulated total radiation dose Dose Rate in Rads/hr
(boundries) time for at
in miles fallout 1 week 4 weeks 15 weeks 100 yrs 7 hrs. 2 days(14 hrs)
33 x 7 1.5 hrs 3000 R 3300 R 3600 R 4600 R 100 R/hr 10 R/hr
95 x 12 5 hrs. 900 R 1200 R 1400 R 1700 R ~50 R/hr 5 R/hr
160 x 18 10 hrs. 300 R 400 R 460 R 650 R not there yet 2 R/hr
245 x 20 16 hrs 90 R 120 R 150 R 240 R not there yet 0.7 R/hr

For shelter from Gamma radiation the standard rule of thumb is 150 pounds of
mass per square foot of cross section of shelter wall yields a PF, protection
factor, of 40. This means if you had two shelters on a flat contaminated field
with one having walls of one layer of cellophane and the other of walls and
ceiling of something that had for its thickness 150 lbs/sq. ft.( note this
would be a thickness of 2.5" of lead, 4" of steel, 12" of concrete, 18" of
soil, 30" of water, 200' of air) you would recieve 1/40th the dose in the 150
lb/sq.ft. walled shelter. This effect can be multiplied. If the sq. ft. cross
section was 300 lbs. that would be 1/40th of 1/40th or 1/1,600th of the
unprotected dose. Take for example a dose rate starting at 100 Rem/hr at 1
hr.,10Rem/hr at 7 hrs.,1 Rem/hr at 49 hours, etc. If exposure started at 1
hour the total dose would be 240 R in 1 day, 310 R in 1 week, 350 R in 4 weeks,
390 R in 15 weeks. The same in a PF 40 shelter would be 6 R in 1 day, 7.7 R
in 1 week, 8.7 R in 4 weeks. The difference would be 5% fatalities-most
others suffering from nausea and taking about 1 month to recover without the
protection versus 0% fatalities-0% sickness with protection of PF40 in this
Another example with a dose rate starting at 1,000 Rem/hr at 1 hr., 100
Rem/hr at 7 hrs., 10 Rem/hr at 49 hours, etc. If exposure started at 1 hour the
total dose would be 2,400 R in 1 day, 3,100 R in 1 week, 3,500 R in 4 weeks,
3,900 R in 15 weeks. This in a 40 PF shelter would be 60 R in 1 day, 77 R in a
week, 87 R in 4 weeks. In a 1,600 PF shelter this would be 1.5 R in 1 day,
about 2 R in 2 weeks, about 2.5 R in 15 weeks. The differences here would be -
no protection = 100% fatalities in several hours - PF 40 = 0% fatalities, 25%
suffer nausea(at the most) with total recovery in 7 days, - PF 1600 no effects.
Please note that protection factor increases as a multiple. If 150 lbs/ft.
sq. = a PF of 40(1/40th or 2.5%), 300 lbs/ft sq. = a PF of 1,600(1/1,600th or
0.0625%), and 450 lbs/ft. sq. = a PF of 64,000(1/64,000th or 0.0015625%)

Typical Swiss domestic shelters have a PF of 16,000 to over 2,500,000.

Treating for Cold Exposure and Frostbite

Treating for Cold Exposure and Frostbite

The following material may assist you in treating a victim for
exposure to the cold and also how to deal with frostbite. This
information is derived from "Advanced First Aid & Emergency Care,"
2nd edition, by the American Red Cross. To obtain a copy of this
book and to take instruction in first aid, please contact the local
office of the American Red Cross. They are listed in the white
pages of your telephone book.


The extent of injury caused by exposure to abnormally low
temperature generally depends on such factors as wind velocity,
type and duration of exposure, temperature and humidity.

Freezing is accelerated by wind, humidity or a combination of
the two. Injury caused by cold, dry air will be less than that
caused by cold, moist air or exposure to cold air while wearing wet
clothing. Fatigue, smoking, drinking of alcoholic beverages,
emotional stress and the presence of wounds or fractures intensity
the harmful effects of cold.


The general manifestations of prolonged exposure to extreme
cold include shivering, numbness, low body temperature, drowsiness
and marked muscular weakness. As time passes there is mental
confusion and impairment of judgment. The victim staggers, his
eyesight fails, he falls and he may become unconscious. Shock is
evident and the victim's heart may develop fibrillation. Death, if
it occurs, is usually due to heart failure.

Frostbite results when crystals form, either superficially or
deeply in the fluids and the underlying soft tissues of the skin.
The effects are more severe if the injured area is thawed and then
refrozen. Frostbite is the most common injury caused by exposure to
the cold elements. Usually, the frozen area is small. the nose,
cheeks, ears, fingers and toes are the most commonly affected.

Just before frostbite occurs, the affected skin may be slight-
ly flushed. The skin changes to white or grayish yellow as the
frostbite develops. Pain is sometimes felt early but subsides
later. Often there is NO pain; the part being frostbitten simply
feels intensely cold and numb. The victim commonly is not aware of
frostbite until someone tells him or until he observes his pale,
glossy skin. The extent of local injury cannot be determined
accurately on initial examination, even after rewarming. The extent
of tissue damage usually corresponds to that in burns. In superfi-
cial frostbite, there will be an area that looks white or grayish
and the surface skin will feel hard but the underlying tissue will
be soft. With deeper involvement, large blisters appear on the
surface, as well as in underlying tissue, and the affected area is
hard, cold and insensitive. Destruction of the entire thickness of
the skin will necessitate skin grafting and will constitute a
medical emergency, because gangrene may result from loss of blood
supply to the injured part.


The objectives of first aid are to protect the frozen area
from further injury, to warm the affected part rapidly and to
maintain respiration. Formerly, it was recommended that victims of
frostbite be treated by slow warming -- rubbing with snow and
gradually increasing the temperature. But recent studies have shown
conclusively that much better results are obtained if the affected
part is WARMED RAPIDLY in running or circulating water, unless the
part has been thawed and refrozen, in which case it should be
warmed at room temperature (from 70 to 74 degrees Fahrenheit). Do
NOT use excessive heat, as from a stove, hot water bottles, elec-
tric blankets or other devices.


1. Cover the frozen part.

2. Provide extra clothing and blankets.

3. Bring the victim indoors as soon as possible.

4. Give him a warm drink (not alcoholic!).

5. Rewarm the frozen part QUICKLY by immersing it in water that
is warm but not hot. Test the water by pouring some over the
inner surface of your forearm or place a thermometer in the
water and carefully add warm water to keep the temperature
between 102 degrees and 105 degrees Fahrenheit. If warm water
is not available or practical to use, wrap the affected part
in a sheet and warm blankets.

6. Handle the area of the frostbite GENTLY and DO NOT MASSAGE IT.
Severe swelling will develop rapidly after thawing. Discon-
tinue warming as soon as the part becomes flushed (turning
red). Once the part is rewarmed, have the victim exercise it.

7. Cleanse the affected area with water and either soap or a mild
detergent (NOT laundry or dishwasher detergent, though; they
can be caustic and cause a chemical burn). Rinse it thorough-
ly. Carefully blot dry with sterile or clean towels. Do NOT
break the blisters.

8. If the victim's fingers or toes are involved, place dry,
sterile gauze between them to keep them separated.

9. Do NOT apply other dressings unless the victim is to be
transported to medical aid.

10. Elevate frostbitten parts and protect them from contact with

11. Do NOT allow the victim to walk after the affected part thaws,
if his feet are involved.

12. Do not apply additional heat and do not allow the victim to
sit near a radiator, stove or fire. The numbed part may be
severely burned and the victim might never realize it is
happening to him.

13. If a person with frozen feet is alone and MUST walk to get
medical assistance, he should NOT attempt thawing in advance.

14. If travel after receiving first aid is necessary, cover the
affected parts with a sterile or clean cloth.

15. Obtain medical assistance as soon as possible. If the distance
to be covered is great, apply temporary dressings to the hands
if they have been affected by frostbite.

16. Keep injured parts elevated during transportation.

17. If medical help or trained ambulance personnel will not reach
the scene for an hour or more AND if the victim is CONSCIOUS
and NOT VOMITING, give him a weak solution of salt and baking
soda at home or while enroute (1 level teaspoon of salt and
1/2 level teaspoon of baking soda in each quart of water,
neither hot nor cold). Do not give alcoholic beverages. Allow
the victim to sip S-L-O-W-L-Y. Give an adult about 4 ounces (a
half glass) over a period of 15 minutes; give a child from 1
to 12 years old about 2 ounces; give an infant (under 1 year
old) about 1 ounce every 15 minutes. Discontinue giving fluids
if vomiting occurs. Fluid may be given by mouth ONLY if
medical help will not be available for an hour or more and is
not otherwise contraindicated.


1. Give the victim artificial respiration, if necessary.

2. Bring the victim into a warm room as quickly as possible.

3. Remove wet or frozen clothing and anything that constricts the
victim's arms, legs or fingers and might interfere with
circulation as the frozen part is thawed and swelling begins.

4. Rewarm the victim rapidly by wrapping him in a warm blanket or
by placing him in a tub of water that is warmed to 102 to 105
degrees Fahrenheit. If a thermometer is not available, make
sure the water is not hot to YOUR hand and forearm.

5. If the victim is conscious, give him hot liquids (but not
alcohol) by mouth.

6. Dry the victim thoroughly if water was used to rewarm him.

7. Carry out the appropriate procedures as described under frost-

Saturday, April 5, 2008

Hello all.

Found a great link to an article on how to live off the land and hide out in the woods once TSHTF.